We were blessed by a visit by Mike Crowley, and his long time friend, John Archdeacon over the last week/end…

Here we are after coming back from a party on Saturday night. We got to have several evenings of in-depth conversation, in between their times at the Ruby on Rails Conference that they were in Portland for.

What I find amazing is the inter-connectiveness of our various lives throughout the years in the UK, and in the US. We knew or had met the same people, were involved in similar activities etc. 1 degree of separation in most cases…

Mike came north with a bit of a cold (actually quite a whopper!) Here he is doing the medicine…

Anyway, a couple of pics, and some good memories!

Todays’ entry features John Cooper Clarke, a British Poet who emerged into the scene during the mid-70′s. I used to collect his albums with quite a fervor, and I thought I would share some of his works with you…. John Archdeacon and I were having a giggle about Cooper Clarke on Saturday night. So, I hope you will enjoy.

Gwyllm

__________________**The Fabulous Linkage:**

Put Your Money Where Your Mouth Is: Changing The World One Business At A Time…

13th century text hides words of Archimedes

“The colonization of each others minds is the price we pay for thought.”

Harsh Birth Control Steps Fuel Violence in China

____________________**So Last Week: The Teletubbies React to Falwell’s Death**

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____________________

Suggested by my friend Tommy C….

HUMAN FRACTALS: THE ARABESQUE IN OUR MIND

Ralph H. Abraham

The rise of fractal geometry as a new branch of mathematics is intertwined with paradigm shifts in the sciences. First, the physical sciences were impacted, then the biological, and now, the social sciences. What are we to think of the diffusion of fractals into cultural studies? Here, in response to Marilyn Strathern’s important contribution to this volume, One-legged gender, we review the fractalization of anthropology since Donna Haraway’s Cyborgs of 1985.

The fractal wave.

Although the mathematical ingredients of fractal geometry have been evolving for a century or so, we owe the development of this important new branch of mathematics to the genius and courage of one person, Benoit Mandelbrot. In a series of books and papers beginning with Les Objets Fractals: Forme, Hasard et Dimension in 1975, he has not only given the subject its definitive mathematical form, but also pioneered many of its most important applications [1]. Because of its novelty, its codependence with computers, or for some other reason, many respected mathematicians have viciously attacked fractal geometry, and Mandelbrot personally, and this has contributed to a public discomfort associated with the words fractal, geometry, and even mathematics. In my view, however, fractal geometry is an exciting and important new chapter in the history of mathematics [2].

Another confusing factor in this context is the mistaken identification of fractal geometry with chaos theory, another exciting and important new chapter in the history of mathematics. Although fractal objects do sometimes display an aspect of spatial chaos, this is very secondary to their fractal nature. The coast of Britain is fractal, but not spatially chaotic. On the other hand, the main objects of chaos theory (attractors, separatrices, and bifurcations) are fractal, but this is secondary to their chaotic nature. The irrational torus is chaotic, but not at all fractal [3].

What then is a fractal object? In a phrase of Freeman Dyson quoted by Mandelbrot himself,

Fractal is a word invented by Mandelbrot to bring together under one heading a large class of objects that have [played] . . . an historical role . . . in the development of pure mathematics. . . . structures that did not fit the patterns of Euclid and Newton. These new structures were regarded . . . as pathological, . . . kin to the cubist paintings and atonal music that were upsetting established standards of taste in the arts at about the same time. . . . The same pathological structures . . . turn out to be inherent in familiar objects all around us.

By definition, fractal objects have fractal dimension. According to Mandelbrot, they are broken, irregular, fragmented, grainy, ramified, strange, tangled, wrinkled. These wrinkled structures may extend over space, over time, or over both: fractal space-time patterns [4]. For our purposes, a single example will suffice to characterize a fractal: the sandy beach.

The sandy beach

In Mandelbrot’s classic text, the second chapter is titled: How long is the coast of Britain? I will describe the sandy beach in the two-dimensional context of a map. Thus, the ocean and the land are mostly two- dimensional. Before fractal geometry, the map showed the boundary between the ocean and the land as a smooth curve: a one-dimensional coast. But now, thanks to Mandelbrot, we may zoom in on the coast, and see that it has very small islands, even pebbles, in a densely packed structure. Zooming in again, we see grains of sand on the beach, and in the ocean close to the beach. All this is the coast: it has a fractal dimension. Land penetrates into the ocean in a frothy structure of sand, ocean penetrates into the land in a frothy structure of water in the wet sand. Not only is the coast a fractal, with a dimension more than one but less than two, but it is a fractal region: the coastal zone. The ocean and land are not divided by the coast in a binary fashion: they interpenetrate in a fractal geometry. The fractals of chaos theory (attractors, separatrices, and bifurcations) are all of the sandy beach variety.

Math and society

At the dawn of modern anthropology in 1871, Edward Burnett Tylor speculated, in Primitive Culture, that speech may have originated among mankind in the savage state. He then went on to conclude:

From the examination of the Art of Counting a far more definite consequence is shown. It may be confidently asserted, that not only is this important art found in a rudimentary state among savage tribes, but that satisfactory evidence proves numeration to have been developed by rational invention from this low state to that in which we ourselves possess it.

And since 1871, rational invention has provides us with transfinite arithmetic, the incompleteness of formal mathematics, topology, the classification of finite groups, chaos theory, fractal geometry, and numerous other fabulous mathematical discoveries. Does the evolution of mathematics from primitive counting to computer graphics follow, lead, or accompany, the evolution of cultural history?

Flinders Petrie found, in excavating ancient Egypt, that mathematics held a commanding lead in the sequence of shifts comprising a canonical revolution of culture [5]. This possibility has dominated my own directions, in the pursuit of mathematical research and application, over the past decade or two. My early experience in the successful revolution of physics by chaos theory in the 1960s and early 1970s gave me a powerful optimism: I had seen the power of new mathematics for change. In the 1970s and early 1980s, I worked toward a similar transformation in the biological sciences. This came more slowly, due in part to a math anxiety and avoidance reflex which unfortunately has poisoned our society, yet we are now experiencing the chaos revolution of biology. The future of the social sciences, however, is hard to foresee. For example, in May of 1992 I was invited to UCLA to give a workshop on chaos theory in the Economics Department. During the first lecture, riots began in the streets outside. The lectures were postponed for a week or so. After resuming, I asked the audience — a large group of professional economists, professors, and graduate students from several continents — if they thought the new mathematics they were learning and applying in their theoretical models could be useful in mitigating the economic problems underlying the riots. Unanimously, they shouted “No! Our work is only theoretical. It is a kind of game. It cannot be applied.” Well, I disagree. I believe that the diffusion of chaos theory and fractal geometry into the social sciences is essential to our future evolution, just as the Art of Counting was essential to the Origins of Culture. It is significant that chaos theory has already entered the field of literature [6].

Fractal people

Now I will briefly describe some fractal concepts in the context of cultural studies, in temporal order. These include all the examples I have seen, but there must be many others.

Donna J. Haraway, A cyborg manifesto: science, technology, and socialist-feminism in the late twentieth century, 1985.

In this long essay, the author (an historian of science) analyzes the cyborg, an integral being who is part human, part machine. Without explicit reference to fractal geometry, her vision is essentially fractal [7]. In fact, she writes: Cyborg `sex’ restores some of the lovely replicative baroque of ferns and invertebrates . . . thus connecting implicitly with fractal geometry. She describes three crucial boundary breakdowns: human/animal, animal- human/machine, and physical/non-physical. She extends these examples to a long list of fractured identities — self/other, mind/body, culture/nature, male/female, etc — of political significance. This pathfinding analysis leads the way to a fractal method (the sandy beach) for the deconstruction of all binaries, and the reconstruction of self-images (and scientific categories) as fractal identities.

Ron Eglash and Peter Broadwell, Fractal geometry in traditional African architecture, 1989. In this provocative seven page research report, the authors (scholars of the history of consciousness and computational mathematics) study the fractal structure of traditional architecture and city plan, in a tribal village in Mali. The fractal nature of the arabesque style is also noted [8]. This is the first explicit application, to my knowledge, of fractal concepts to social theory.

Will McWhinney, Fractals cast no shadows, 1990. In this highly original twelve-page essay, the author describes the border between good and evil as a fractal boundary. This model is applied to the problem of the management of evil, in two paradigms: holism and arabesque [9]. This is the first explicit application, to my knowledge, of fractal concepts to the human psyche. The fractal concept applied is that of the sandy beach.

Marilyn Strathern, The mediation of emotion, 1990. Borrowing from Haraway, the author (an anthropologist) introduces the concept of a person who is neither singular nor plural. Again, the fractal concept was not explicitly applied [10]. A significant development here is the application of the fractal concept of self-similarity across scales. This is applied to the field of information faced by the ethnographer: data of individuals, societies, histories and myths, etc. The view of a culture (or an individual mind) from the perspective of fractal geometry is new and important: the field of information within which we live is a sandy beach.

Roy Wagner, The fractal person, 1991. Here, in an essay of fifteen pages, the concept of a fractal boundary in the psyche (as in McWhinney, 1990) is explicitly applied to the works of Haraway (1985) and Strathern (1990). Inspired particularly by an early draft of Strathern (1992), Wagner develops these ideas further, applying them to the boundary between big-men and great-men systems [11]. He sees the fractal identity of the individual within a relational network as an aspect of Melanesian society.

Marilyn Strathern, Partial Connections, 1992. In this recent book, the fractal concept of self-similarity across scales is extensively applied to the complexity and quantity of anthropological materials: cultural data, ethnographic recordings, etc., as in Strathern (1990).

Marilyn Strathern, One-legged gender, 1992. The last few pages of this paper, published in this volume, return to these fractal concepts, in a further evolution from Haraway (1985), Strathern (1990), Wagner (1991), and Strathern (1992). As in her earlier works and in Wagner, the fractal concept of self-similarity across spatial scales is applied and developed. Beyond this extension of her earlier work, the sandy beach aspect of fractal geometry is applied to gender. This carries further the work of Haraway (1985) on the fractal deconstruction of binaries.

The fractalization of the gender binary — so fundamental to social structures throughout the animal kingdom — is radical and difficult. Strathern carries it off successfully in this piece, completing a new milestone in the sequence begun in Haraway (1985). We now have a model application of the new mathematics of fractals to anthropology, which may be profitably be repeated and extended in future works, enriching both anthropology and mathematics and advancing the paradigm shift now underway in the social sciences.

5. What next?

To many pure mathematicians, especially those to whom fractal geometry itself is not mathematics but heresy, these applications of new mathematical ideas to anthropology will seem anathema, vulgarization, fractal evil itself. In my perspective, however, they are the first steps of a major paradigm shift, a critical renewal arriving in timely fashion, of an entire area of cultural studies. Let us encourage this trend, which could be advanced spectacularly by a new generation of students well-trained in mathematics as well as in a social or human science. If so, a long lost partnership between mathematics and cultural history and evolution may be restored, jump-starting a social transformation to a sustainable civilization of peace, diversity, and understanding, such as the Garden of Eden of the Goddess envisioned by Marija Gimbutas in the prehistoric partnership society of Old Europe. And in this jump-start, the fractal view of the human mind and the social field of information, pioneered by Donna Haraway and Marilyn Strathern, is a critical step off the sandy beach of Pythagoras, Plato, and Euclid, and into the post-Pythagorean sea of Mandelbrot. For the future of cultural studies, this is a great leap into space.

Acknowledgments

It is a pleasure to

acknowledge the encouragement of Sarah Williams, and the generosity of Ron Eglash and Will McWhinney in sharing their ideas.

Notes

[1] For the most recent comprehensive treatment, see (Mandelbrot, 1982).

[2] For Mandelbrot’s view, see his Foreword: fractals and the rebirth of experimental mathematics, in (Peitgen, 1992).

[3] For a visual introduction to these ideas, see (Abraham, 1992).

[4] For the fractals of music and speech, see (Voss, 1988) , and (Eglash, 1991).

[5] See (Petrie, 1912).

[6] See (Hayles, 1990).

[7] See (Haraway, 1985) , also reprinted as Ch. 8 in (Haraway, 1990).

[8] See (Eglash, 1989).

[9] See (McWhinney, 1990), as well as the Epilogue of (McWhinney, 1992).

[10] See (Strathern, 1990) , and also (Strathern, 1992).

[11] See (Wagner, 1991).

Bibliography

Abraham, 1992. Ralph H. Abraham and Christopher D. Shaw, Dynamics, the Geometry of Behavior, Second Edition, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA (1992).

Eglash, 1989. Ron Eglash and Peter Broadwell, “Fractal geometry in traditional African architecture,” The Dynamics Newsletter Vol. 3:4 pp. 3-9 (July, 1989).

Eglash, 1991. Ron Eglash, The cybernetics of chaos, Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (1991).

Haraway, . Donna Haraway, “Manifesto for cyborgs: science, technology, and socialist feminism in the 1980s,” Socialist Review Vol. 80 pp. 65-108 (1985 ).

Haraway, . Donna Haraway, Simians, Cyborgs, and Women, Routledge, New York (1990 ).

Hayles, 1990. N. Katherine Hayles, Chaos Bound: Orderly Disorder in Contemporary Literature and Science, Cornell University Press, Ithaca NY (1990).

Mandelbrot, . Benoit Mandelbrot, The Fractal Geometry of Nature, Freeman, San Francisco (1982 ).

McWhinney, 1990. Will McWhinney, “Fractals cast no shadows,” IS Journal Vol. 5:1 pp. 9-12 (Spring, 1990).

McWhinney, 1992. Will McWhinney, Paths of Change, Sage (1992).

Peitgen, . Heinz-Otto Peitgen, Hartmut Jurgens, and Dietmar Saupe, Fractals for the Classroom: Part One, Introduction to Fractals and Chaos, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1992 ).

Petrie, 1911. William M. Flinders Petrie, The Revolutions of Civilizations, I, C (1911).

Strathern, . Marilyn Strathern, “The mediation of emotion,” Melanesian Manuscript Series Vol. 0113:1(1990 ).

Strathern, . Marilyn Strathern, Partial Connections, Rowman & Littlefield, London (1992 ).

Voss, 1988. Richard F. Voss, “Fractals in nature,” in The Science of Fractal Images, ed. H.-O. Peitgen and D. Saupe,Springer-Verlag, New York (1988).

Wagner, . Roy Wagner, “The fractal person,” pp. 159-173 in Big Men and Great Men: the Personifications of Power, ed. M. Godelier and M. Strathern,Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1991 ).

___________**The Charmed John Cooper Clarke**

I Wanna Be Yours

let me be your vacuum cleaner

breathing in your dust

let me be your ford cortina

i will never rust

if you like your coffee hot

let me be your coffee pot

you call the shots

i wanna be yours

let me be your raincoat

for those frequent rainy days

let me be your dreamboat

when you wanna sail away

let me be your teddy bear

take me with you anywhere

i dont care

i wanna be yours

let me be your electric meter

i will not run out

let me be the electric heater

you get cold without

let me be your setting lotion

hold your hair with deep devotion

deep as the deep atlantic ocean

thats how deep is my emotion

deep deep deep deep de deep deep

i dont wanna be hers

i wanna be yours

—

APART FROM THE REVOLUTION

Each drop of blood a rose shall be

all sorrow shall be dust

blown by breezes to the sea

whose fingers thrust

into the corners of restless night

where creatures of the deep

avoid the flashing harbour lights

in search of endless sleep

there were executions

somebody had to pay

apart from the revolution

it’s another working day

a million angels sing

peasants eating cake

wedding bells are ringing

the room begins to shake

the children free from measles all

have healthy teeth and gums

they live in the cathedrals

and worship in the slums

poverty and pollution

have all swept away

apart from the revolution

it’s another working day

—

**Beasley Street**

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—

A Distant Relation

A family affair.

We get the picture,

We’re in it somewhere.

Permanent fixtures.

People who care.

Stranger beware,

This is a family affair

All of our yesterday’s.

Familiar rings,

I have to get away,

Its breaking my heart strings.

We have a drink,

On special occasions,

It makes me think,

About distant relations,

A family affair.

Always a mixture.

Of people in chairs,

Permanent fixtures,

With pressure to bear.

People who care.

This is a family affair.

Holiday snapshots.

Of you and myself.

Acting the crackpot,

Like everyone else.

The Bermuda shorts,

and the summer creations,

Bringing thoughts,

of those distant relations.

A family affair.

We brake ornaments, and get them repaired,

We bring up past events that hang in the air.

This is a family affair.

All our yesterdays.

Familiar rings.

I have to get away, from some sourroundings.

Weddings and funerals, special occasions,

And all the usual distant relations.

A family affair.

Look at this picture.

We’re in there, look there.

Permanent fixtures.

People who care,

Whisper who dares,

This is a family affair.

—

Belladonna

no falling chimes, no call to arms,

no siren whines, no false alarms,

down the telephone lines

at the side of the farms

arm in arm, down hemlock row

where the flowers of evil… never grow

under one heartbeat, heavy but slow

walking together in the purple snow charming breezes, bring the rain

it’s gonna run like rats down the gutters and the drains

it’s gonna run like a river

down the window panes

down a web of cracks, like twisted veins

a stranger… calls my name between the rollerama and the junk yard

where the panorama looks like Mars

and the belladonna looks like stars

behind the Panamanian bars

in the dying gardens… down below

walking together in the purple snow.

—

PSYCLE SLUTS (PARTS 1 & 2)

part one…

this disc concerns those those pouting prima-donnas

found within the swelling j. arthur ranks of the sexational psycle sluts

those nubile nihilists of the north circular

the lean leonine leatherette lovelies of the leeds intersection

luftwaffe angels locked in a pagan paradise

no cash

a passion for trash

the tough madonna whose cro-magnon face and crab nebular curves haunt the highways of the UK, whose harsh credo captures the collective libido like lariats

their lips pushed in a neon-arc of dodgems

delightfully disciplined, dumb but deluxe

deliciously deliciously deranged

twin-wheeled existentialists steeped in the sterile excrements of a doomed democracy, whose post-nietzschean sensibilities reject the bovine gregariousness of a senile oligarchy

whose god is below zero, whose hero is a dead boy

condemned to drift like forgotten sputniks in the fool’s orbit bound for a victim’s future

in the pleasure dromes and ersatz bodega bars of the free world the mechanics of love grind like organs of iron to a standstill

hands behind your backs

in a noxious gas of cheek to cheek totalitarianism

hail the psycle sluts

go go the gland gringos

for the gonad a-go-go age of compulsory cunnilingusa

part two…

the dirty thirty

the naughty forty

the shifty fifty

the filthy five

zips, clips, whips and chains

wait for you to arrive

hell’s angels by the busload

stoned stupid, how they strut

smoked woodbines till they’re banjoed

and smirk at the swedish smut

life on the straight and narrow path

drives you off your nut

by day you are psycopath

by night you’re a psycle slut

on a bsa with two bald tires

you drove a million miles

you cut your hair with rusty pliers

and you suffer with the pillion piles

you got built in obsolescence

oh you got guts

but you don’t reach adolescence

slow down psycle sluts

motor cycle michael

wants to buy a tank

only twenty-nine years old

and he’s learning how to wank

yesterday he was in the groove

today he’s in a rut

my how the moments move

brut fun psycle sluts

he cacks on your originals

he peepees on his boots

he makes love like a footballer

he dribbles before he shoots

the goings on at the gang-bang ball

made the citizen’s tut-tut-tut

but, what do you care, piss all

you tell ‘em psycle sluts

now your boyfriend burned his jacket

ticket expired

tyres are knackered

knackers are tired

you can tell your tale to the gutter press

get paid to peddle smut

now you’ve ridden the road of excess

that leads to the psycle sluts

or you can dine and whine on stuff that’s bound to give you boils

hot dogs direct from cruft’s

done in diesel oil

or the burger joint around the bend

where the meals thank christ are skimpy

for you that’s how the world could end

not with a bang but a wimpy.

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